APPENDIX 2. EXPERIMENTS TO TEST h‑SPACE THEORY
THE GRAVITATION EFFECT ON MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETIC INTERACTION
Background.In the proposed theory, the electric charge is determined by the density of undirected n=0-objects(I), ρ0. And the increase of density ρM (increase of gravity) corresponds to a decrease in ρ0, i.e. a decrease of the elementary charge. This means that magnetic field and, consequently, magnetic interaction depends on the gravitational potential.
Scheme of experiment. The repealing force at the same distance between two permanent magnets should be measured at Earth’s surface and at some distance from it. This force should be stronger at some distance from the surface than it is at the surface.
THE CHARGE-TO-MASS RATIO OF A FREE PROTON
Background. In the proposed theory, both charge and mass of the electron are 459 times larger than that in the textbooks. Because of the electron charge increase, the charge-to-mass ratio of a free proton is 9 times less than that of a free electron. From textbooks this value should be 1/1836. This value was first determined in electrolysis experiments and then in experiments conducted by Willi Wien and J.J. Thomson. According to the proposed theory, in Thomson’s experiments the charge-to-mass ratios of monovalent carbon and oxygen were mistakenly assigned to the charge-to-mass ratios of monovalent atomic hydrogen ion and molecular hydrogen ion.
Scheme of experiment. The Thomson’s experiment should be modified for a chemical detection of the spots corresponding to “hydrogen” ions. For this, the chromium metal plate as a detection screen can be used. If the proposed theory is correct then the spots will have different color corresponding to chromium oxide and chromium carbide. The chemical reaction of hydrogen with chromium should not give the colored spots.
THE IONS CHARGES
Background. In contrast to the textbooks, in the proposed theory the charges of monovalent ions of different chemical elements are different.
Scheme of experiment. Two bodies of symmetrical shape made of aluminium and lead can be charged while they are in a direct contact. This will generate their equal charges, but the different numbers of electrons/positrons should be present on these bodies. Their discharge to the ground will result in flows of different amounts of electrons, i.e. in the electric impulses of different amplitudes or in different stain intensities in the electrolysis experiment with the electrochromic electrolyte.
VERIFICATION OF THE ELECTRON-POSITRON COMPOSITION OF PROTON AND NEUTRON
Background. In the proposed theory, protons and neutrons are made up of electrons and positrons.
Scheme of experiment 1. The existing facilities can be used to conduct experiments on the collision of low-energy electrons and positrons. According to modern physics, these energies would be too low to form protons and antiprotons. However, the proposed theory predicts that protons and anti-protons, as well as other particles, would be formed as different complexes of the positrons and electrons.
Scheme of experiment 2. In the experiment the collision of high-energy electrons is conducted. According to modern physics, collision of high-energy electrons can result in the generation of particle-antiparticle pairs. In the proposed theory, the collision of high-energy electrons cannot result in production of any particles except of electrons.
Scheme of experiment 3. In the experiment positrons emitted by radionuclide (22Na) are directed to a negatively charged metal target. According to the proposed theory, the interaction of positrons and electrons can result in the formation of protons and then hydrogen atoms. The detection system in this experiment should be designed to control the amount of hydrogen atoms.
ABSORPTION OF PHOTONS BY ELECTRONS AND REFLECTION OF PHOTONS BY POSITRONS
Background. In the proposed theory, electrons absorb photons. This causes an increase in the velocity of the electrons. Positrons reflect photons without changing the velocity of the positrons.
Scheme of experiment. The separate traps for electrons and positrons should be used. Then, electrons and positrons are irradiated with photons and changes in the velocities o electrons and positrons should be determined.
VERIFICATION OF COULOMB’S LAW AT DISTANCES BELOW 10−5 METER
Background. The proposed theory suggests that Coulomb’s law is not correct at the distance less than ≈ 10−5 m. There is a direct proportionality of electrostatic attraction/repulsion to the square of distance, i.e. the velocity of attraction/repulsion between electrons/positrons does not increase (according to modern physics), but it decreases in the range from ≈ 10−5 m to ≈ 10−10 m. If the distance is in the range from ≈ 10−10 m to ≈ 10−15 m, the velocity of attraction/repulsion of electrons and positrons is zero.
Scheme of experiment. The following experiments can be conducted to validate electrostatic attraction/repulsion at distances less than ≈ 10−5 m. An electron source is placed behind an electron filter with micrometer holes. The distances between pairs of holes range from millimeters to nanometers. Beyond the filter, a screen is placed which can register spots left by electrons that have passed the filter. The test allows a determination of electron spots with the distance between the holes in the filter. According to the suggested theory, reduction of the distance between adjacent holes down to 10−5 meters will cause increasing repulsion of the electron beams, and the electron spot on the detector screen will increase. But at distances less than 10−5meters, there will be less repulsion between electron beams, and the resulting spots will be smaller. The maximum spot size must be at a distance of 10−5meters. In contrast, according to modern physics, the repulsion of electron beams will increase with decreasing distance up to the collision of beams. Accordingly, the spots on the screen will also increase with decreasing distance between the holes in the filter.
Rather than pairs of electron beams, it would also be possible to use separate electron beams but with different diameters (diameters of holes in the filter). According to modern physics, with decreasing beam diameter, dispersion of the electron beam should increase due to mutual repulsion of electrons in the beam. Accordingly, the ratio of the spot diameter on the screen (for the same distance between the filter and the screen) to the initial diameter of the beam on the filter will increase. If the proposed theory is correct, then at beam diameters less than 10−5meters, the dispersion of electrons will decrease, as will the ratio of the spot diameter on the screen to diameter of the beam on the filter.
THE CHANGE OF CHARGE NEAR NEUTRAL MOVING BODIES
Background. According to the proposed theory, the motion of electrons and positrons changes the density of n=0-objects(I) ρ0. As a result, a magnetic field is generated that consists of n=0‑objects(I) of density ρΔ,and directed according to the sign of the charge. In the case of the motion of a neutral body, there is also a change in the density ρ0, but n=0-objects(I) are not directed. The number n=0-objects(I), displaced by charged or neutral bodies depends on the speed and density of the bodies. Since the density ρ0determines the electron charge, then in the region near moving neutral bodies the value of density ρ0will by changed, i.e. the electrical charge will change.
Scheme of experiment 1.The electrostatic interaction of charges near the collision of masses could be measured, on the opposite sides of a shield stopping the moving body. For protection against electromagnetic radiation, a grounded screen should be placed between the shield and the device measuring charge interactions. In a similar way, the electrostatic interaction of charges can be measured near periodically moving masses, for example, near a rotating or linear moving neutral body.
Scheme of experiment 2.Electric current (pulses of electric current) is measured in a charged conductor when one end of the conductor is placed near a mass change, such as that generated by a rotating uncharged body. The other end is placed at some distance. Between the rotating body and the conductor, a screen is placed to protect against a possible electrons transfer induced by friction of the rotating body of air. The ideal case would be a rotating body in a vacuum chamber. Since the change of mass at a given point in space causes a change of density ρ0, i.e. a change of charge, different potentials will be generated at different ends of the conductor.
DEFLECTION OF LIGHT BY CHANGE OF MAGNETIC FIELD
Background.Since magnetic field changes (as well as the gravity changes) are due to changes in the density of n=0-objects(I) ρ0, light should deviate from a straight-line movement not only in strong gravitational fields but also as a result of changes in strong magnetic fields.
Scheme of experiment.The deflection of a beam of light is measured near a pulsed electric current that creates strong magnetic pulses. A similar experiment was carried out by Eugene Podkletnov and gave results consistent with the proposed theory (Study of Light Interaction with Gravity Impulses and Measurements of the Speed of Gravity Impulses – Pp. 169-182 (14) Evgeny Podkletnov and Giovanni Modanese. Gravity-Superconductors Interactions: Theory and Experiment by Giovanni Modanese, Glen A. Robertson DOI: 10.2174/97816080539951120101; eISBN: 978-1-60805-399-5; 2012; ISBN: 978-1-60805-400-8)
CHANGE IN THE WEIGHT OF A BODY NEAR THE CHANGE OF MAGNETIC FIELD
Background. According to the proposed theory, the density of n=0‑objects(I), ρ0, is changed by moving electrons and positrons. As a result, a magnetic field is generated. Accordingly, a change in magnetic field strength leads to a change in the density of n=0‑objects(I), ρ0. The gravitational interaction is due to changes in density ρ0. For this reason, the local change of magnetic field will temporarily affect the gravitational attraction.
Scheme of experiment. It is proposed to produce unidirectional, pulsed, electric discharges. As protection against any electromagnetic radiation, a grounded screen should be installed. Behind the screen, the gravitational attraction is measured during the discharge. A similar experiment was carried out by Eugene Podkletnov and gave results consistent with the proposed theory (Evgeny Podkletnov, Giovanni Modanese. Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure, arXiv physics/0108005, 30.08.2001).
CHANGES IN THE WEIGHT OF A BODY NEAR OTHER MOVING BODIES
Background. According to the proposed theory, the density of n=0‑objects(I), ρ0, determines the gravitational attraction. This means that a change in density ρ0, resulting from the motion of electrons and positrons (as well as ionized and unionized atoms), will cause a change in gravitational attraction. The motion of electrically neutral bodies will also change the density ρ0.
Scheme of experiment. A dense body is accelerated to maximum speed and allowed to collide with the massive screen. Behind the screen the gravitational attraction is measured at the moment of the collision.