### THE PHYSICAL CONTENT OF h‑SPACE THEORY

COSMOLOGY

EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE

In the proposed theory, the development of the universe is represented as follows. Objects constituting the universe are moving relative to each other, resulting in a periodically contracted and extended universe. This cyclical expansion has two phases, the α-phase and the β-phase, that oscillate between each other (see “Definition of a cyclic motion of n=0-objects of n=0-space”). In the initial state, the universe is zero-dimensional space, i.e. consists of objects of zero-dimensional space – n=0-objects(I). The universe has a minimal linear size at the beginning of the β-phase, when its size is equal to the size of objects of zero-dimensional space of the β-phase – L/q = h. Since the value of his equal to 1040times of the absolute unit of length (which is ≈ 105 m), the minimal linear size of the universe is 1045 m. As a result of the relative motion of objects of zero-dimensional space, n=0‑objects(I) of the β-phase, the universe will expand and at some moment reach a linear size equal to the length of objects of one-dimensional space of the β‑phase, (n=1-object), ≈ 1025 m (see “Definition of n≠0-objects and n≠0-spaces”). The equal amount of n=0‑objects(I) of the β-phase becomes n=1-objects and n=0‑objects(II)”−”,”+”, having a length ≈ 1035 m. Further expansion will lead to the emergence of two-dimensional space and n=2-objects having the length ≈ 1015 m. Finally, expansion of the β-phase will lead to the emergence of a three-dimensional space and n=3-objects with a characteristic length ≈ 105 m. This length, ≈ 105 m, corresponds to the absolute length unit, ≈ 105 m. At this point, when three-dimensional space will appear, simultaneously, a transition from the β-phase to the α-phase will occur. Zero-dimensional space of the α-phase will arise and will be equal to the length of objects of one-dimensional space of the α-phase (≈ 105 m), which will lead to the formation of one-dimensional space and its objects, n=1-objects (see “Definition of n≠0-objects and n≠0-spaces”). I.e. on the α-phase, in addition to zero-dimensional space one-dimensional space will appear, and n=1-objects of the α-phase will be generated from objects of the zero-dimensional space of the α‑phase. The equal amount of the n=0-objects(I) will become n=1-objects and n=0‑objects(II)”−”,”+”. At this time, objects of zero-dimensional space, n=0-objects(I) and n=0‑objects(II)”−”,”+”, will coexist with the objects of one-dimensional space, n=1-objects, as in the case of β-phase. Further, the one-dimensional universe will continue to expand until it reaches a size equal to the length of objects of two-dimensional space of the α-phase (n=2-objects), ≈ 105 m. Accordingly, in addition to one-dimensional space, two-dimensional space will appear, in which there will be objects of zero-, one-, two-dimensional spaces. Similarly, when the linear size of the expanding universe reaches ≈ 1015 m, in the α-phase, three-dimensional space and its objects (n=3‑objects) will appear. Because the density of the n=0-objects(I) will decrease with time (with an increase in total length), then over time the speed of expansion of the universe for the same distance between two points will decrease.

According to the section “Electrostatics”, the density ρ0to date is ≈ 1010and, consequently, the velocity of the universe expansion is ≈ 108 m/s, i.e. comparable to the speed of light. It should be noted that the above value of the density of n=0‑objects(I) corresponds to one, described in the second section, “head to tail” set of n=0-objects. The number of such sets is ≈ 1040. They are located in parallel to each other. Since, in every set there are 1040n=0-objects(I), the number of other n-objects of non-zero spaces (based on the proportional ratio) is also a number of the same order. Since the number of sets is ≈ 1040, the total number of n-objects is equal to ≈ 1080. This means that the number of electrons, positrons, protons and neutrons in our universe is about 1080,which is consistent with estimates in modern physics.

The n=0-objects(II)”−”,”+” of the α-phase in the one-, two- and three-dimensional spaces have the same linear size ≈ 1015 m, despite the fact that their volume is different. Based on the linear size of the universe, the linear size of the n=0‑objects(II)”−”,”+” and their number of 1080, the relative distribution of the n=0‑objects(II)”−”,”+” in n-dimensional spaces can be determined. A simple calculation shows that in one-dimensional space, they should overlap, since their total volume is more than volume of one-dimensional space for its maximal linear size ≈ 105 m, corresponding to the transition from one-dimensional to two-dimensional space – 1080 x 1015 > 105 m. In the case of two-dimensional space, the situation is similar – 1080 x 1015×2 > 1015×2 m2. It varies with the formation of three-dimensional space, since its volume at the time of formation, i.e. with linear dimensions of ≈ 1015 m, will be greater than the total volume of n=0‑objects(II)”−”,”+” – 1080 x 1015×3 < 1015×3 m3. Thus, if before the formation of three-dimensional space, all the electrons and positrons overlap, from the moment of formation of three-dimensional space they can be distributed without overlapping each other. In addition, since there are n=1-objects in three-dimensional space, i.e. quanta of the electromagnetic field with a wavelength of ≈105 m, as well as, n=2-objects and n=3‑objects, then electrons can absorb them and so increase their speed. This means that at the moment of formation of three‑dimensional space, electrons and positrons will go from a dense overlapping state to a state of scattering relative to each other. In other words, formation of the three-dimensional universe will cause an explosion, the dispersion of matter consisting of overlapping electrons and positrons. A similar state of the overlap of electrons and positrons takes place in the nuclei of atoms. I.e. we can say that in the proposed theory proto-matter has a nuclear structure.

At the beginning of the three-dimensional space, the density ρ0was greater than today. The initial density can be calculated as the ratio of the maximum density ρ0 ≈ 1040to the linear size of the universe, expressed in absolute units of length. For the transition from two- to three-dimensional space, characterized by length ≈ 1020, such calculation gives a value for the density ρ0 ≈ 1020, that is 1010times more than the present value of the density ρ0 ≈ 1010. The density ρ0determines the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation in inverse proportion (see “Atoms and spectra”). An increase in the density ρ0causes a decrease in the length of generated electromagnetic quanta. This means that today it is possible to detect the gamma rays of cosmic origin of the early universe with the minimal length ≈ 1026 m. Because these gamma rays are formed in the early development of three-dimensional space, their source today should be seen as coming towards us from a maximum distance. The existence of such phenomena, as gamma ray bursts and the detection of cosmic gamma rays of ultrahigh-energy, fit into the proposed idea.

The age of the universe is estimated to be about 1010years. In the proposed theory, the age of universe is the same. It corresponds to the period from the beginning of the expansion of the total length of n=0‑objects(I) to the value of the present size of the universe, about 1026 m. Today, the velocity of expansion of the total length of n=0‑objects(I) is v0ρ0, which is roughly equal to the speed of light. Previously, the velocity of the expansion of the universe was greater and the distance less, and consequently the time of expansion was much smaller and can be ignored. To determine the age of the universe i.e., the time of expansion of the total length of n=0‑objects(I), the known size of the universe is divided by the speed of light. The result is 1018seconds, or about 1010years. Similarly, we can calculate the time from the beginning of the universe before the generation of the three-dimensional universe. As mentioned above, three-dimensional space is formed when the linear size of the universe reaches ≈ 1015 m which, in absolute length units (length of n=0-objects(I), ≈ 105 m), is equal to a length of ≈ 1020. Accordingly, the density of the n=0‑objects(I) is equal to ≈ 1020, and the velocity of the expansion, in absolute units of velocity, is ≈ 1020. Upon transfer of absolute units of velocity, 102 m/s, to meters per second, this velocity is ≈ 1018 m/s. By dividing the length of ≈ 1015 m by the speed ≈ 1018 m/s, we get the time from the beginning of the universe to the appearance of the three-dimensional universe, ≈ 103 s.

According to modern astrophysics, the universe is expanding with acceleration. Experimental evidence of this is a distance difference determined from the brightness of supernovae and their redshift according to Hubble’s law. The distance determined from the red shift is smaller than it should be from the brightness of supernovae. These observations have been interpreted as evidence that the acceleration is being driven by the action of dark energy. In the proposed theory, this discrepancy has another explanation due to the incorrect determination of distance from redshift. Nowadays, the redshift of Hubble’s law has theoretical explanation not by the Doppler effect (as it was at the time of discovery of Hubble’s law), but according to a cosmological model relating recessional velocity to the expansion of the universe. The Doppler redshift is limited to one unit, otherwise the objects will move at a speed greater than the speed of light. Besides the Doppler redshift there is redshift caused by gravitation, and the gravitational redshift can be greater than one unit. The observed redshifts are greater than one unit and so can be considered as gravitational in origin. The gravitational redshift in the proposed theory is due to a decrease in density ρ0(see “Gravitational attraction”). The less distance to a massive body, the lower the density ρ0and, accordingly, the greater wavelength and larger the redshift. In the early universe, the density ρ0was greater than today. Accordingly, the gravitational redshift from distant cosmic objects of the early universe will be less than redshift from closer objects. This explains the less than expected redshift for distance determined from brightness of supernovae. Thus, the universe is not expanding with acceleration and there is no need for the concept of dark energy.

The proposed theory has a simple explanation for the existence of relic radiation. The formation of one-dimensional space means the generation of n=1-objects (electromagnetic quanta), whose length is equal to the absolute unit of length ≈105 m. This length corresponds to the wavelength of relic radiation. Thus, the relic radiation represents n=1‑objects of one-dimensional space that have remained after their absorption by electrons. Obviously, n=2- and n=3-objects generated in result of the formation of n=2 -, n=3-dimensional spaces of the universe, should also exist in the three-dimensional space. They are predicted to have tremendous speed, ≈ 1018 m/s and 1028 m/s respectively, as well as considerable lengths, ≈ 105 m and 1015 m, respectively. Similar to the objects of one-dimensional space, they are absorbed/emitted by electrons and reflected from positrons without changing their velocity. At the beginning of the formation of the universe, electrons and positrons are not moving relative to each other. Absorption of the n=1-, n=2-, n=3-objects will increase velocity of the electrons and this will lead to the spatial separation of the moving electrons from the resting positrons. Such separation will create electrostatic attractions resulting ultimately in the formation of atomic nuclei having more positrons than electrons. This will then allow the formation of atoms and, accordingly, the generation of gravitational attraction. Gravitational attraction and collisions of atoms will generate, in turn, n=1-, n=2-, n=3-objects. Thus, the formation of atomic matter in the universe, is possible due to the energy (velocity) of electrons after absorption of n=1-, n=2-, n=3-objects, generated with the formation of the n=1-, n=2-, n=3-dimensional spaces of our universe.

According to the section “Metaphysical principia of h-spacetheory”, for our universe, the “Planck constant” is equal to a certain value. Other constant values, as well as other absolute units of length and velocity, define the variants of universe. Moreover, all the variants of universe, as Multiverse, have the same laws as, for example, the Coulomb law or law of gravitation attraction.

FORMATION OF STARS AND PLANETS

The proposed formation of the three-dimensional universe, as an explosion of the densely packed electron-positron protosubstance, suggests that the stars can be remnants of this protosubstance. This differs from the modern cosmological models where the raw material of stars is atomic hydrogen, and the stars are formed due to gravitational compression of the hydrogen mass. The formation of stars from protosubstance at the early stages of the universe would explain the structure of the universe that we see in forms of galaxies with their characteristic dimensions.As noted above, at the beginning of the three-dimensional universe, the density ρ0was equal to ≈ 1020, a value greater than the density today,ρ0 ≈ 1010, by 1010times. In the early universe electron-positron protosubstance had the same dense packing of electrons and positrons that is found in the nuclei of atoms today. According to the description of gravitational attraction (see “Gravitational attraction”), this means that the electron-positron protosubstance of stars displaced all n=0‑objects(I), in an amount of ≈ 1020.I.e., the decrease in the density of n=0‑objects(I) ρMreached value ≈ 1020. In turn, this means that in the early three-dimensional universe the maximum limit of gravitational attraction of stars was more than today.If we consider a star having the size of the sun, then for the density ρM ≈ 1020and from the following equation – 1 = ρM/4πR2, the maximal distance of the gravitational attraction of such a star is equal to ≈ 1010of diameters of the Sun (109 m), i.e. ≈ 1019 m.The size of our galaxy is about 1021 m.For giant stars, whose size is 10 – 100 times more then the size of Sun, the boundary of the gravitational attraction is comparable to the size of the galaxy.This means that at the beginning of our three-dimensional universe, stars attracted each other by gravitation up to distances comparable with the dimensions of galaxies.Accordingly, we can consider the dimensions of galaxies to be determined by the maximum gravitational attraction of stars at the early stages of three-dimensional universe. In the later stages of the universe, this maximal limit of a star’s gravity decreased, as the density of n=0‑objects(I) ρ0decreased. Further expansion of the universe would lead to increasing distances between stars, at which gravity between them could no longer act. For example, the star nearest to us from the constellation Centaurus is comparable in size to the Sun but is placed at a distance that is approximately three orders of magnitude greater than the maximal distance of the gravitational attraction by these stars (according to the proposed theory). As a result, we can observe the galaxies in which the outer stars are not held by gravity. According to modern concepts, such galaxies cannot exist, because the stars are formed by the gravitational attraction of the mass of hydrogen, and then gravity gathers stars in the galaxy. All the stars must be held together by gravity. The concept of dark matter was introduced in order to account for the supposed gravitational attraction necessary to hold the outer stars in spiral galaxies, since it was found that the stars velocities are not decreasing, as it is expected to be if gravity force has no a distance limit, but they are becoming constant for the distances greater than a certain distance. The mechanism of galaxy formation in the proposed theory explains the fact that many peripheral stars in galaxies have high velocities and cannot be held by gravity. The reason of this is the existence of maximum distance of the gravitational attraction. Accordingly, there is no need for the concept of dark matter to retain the peripheral stars in the galaxies. Some observations confirm the formation of stars in the early stages of the universe (Caffau, E. et al., 2011 An extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo Nature 477, 67–69 doi:10.1038/nature10377). From these publications it follows that all galaxies are at the same age, and the stars in galaxies should be formed in the early universe.

The number of positrons in the stars must be greater than that of electrons. This follows from the fact that the electrons absorb n=1-, n=2‑and n=3-objects and thereby acquire a certain velocity, unlike positrons which reflect these objects without changing their velocity. Since n=1‑, n=2-, n=3-objects are produced during the evolution of the universe, they will knock out electrons from the electron-positron protosubstance. Then, due to gravity, the remnants of the electron-positron protosubstance, dominated by positrons, will gather in stars. Accordingly, electrons compensating the positive charge of the star will be located at some distance, probably in the corona of the Sun. In this case, the energy radiation of the stars is not generated in thermonuclear fusion reactions of protons, but by the radioactive decay energy of the positive electron-positron protosubstance, similar to the radioactive decay energy of the positive nuclei of atoms. I.e. the electrons of the protosubstance in stars can absorb n=1-, n=2- and n=3-objects remaining from the beginning of the three-dimensional universe, and this causes radioactive decay of the protosubstance to electron-positron complexes (elementary particles). Thus, n=1-objects and especially n=2- objects and n=3-objects that are fast moving throughout whole universe, play a key role in the generation of radiation from stars.

Dense packing of electrons and positrons in the stars suggests that they, as well as Sun, represent black holes. In the section “Gravitational attraction”, it was mentioned that due to the minimum density of n=0‑objects(I) inside of stars there is minimal radiation, i.e. the inside of the Sun is not hot, but cold. With increasing distance from the center of Sun, the density of n=0‑objects(I) increases. Accordingly, the energy of the emitted photons increases, producing an increase in temperature with distance from the surface of the Sun (as for all other stars). This gradient of n=0‑objects(I) density also implies that electrostatic interactions are weaker near the surface of Sun and became stronger away from it. Solar activity in this case can be explained by changes in electron-positron composition of the stellar surface. Since in the proposed theory, only electrons can absorb and emit electromagnetic rays, the sunspots are predicted to be areas in which there are changes in the content of electrons that are absorbing and emitting electromagnetic quanta (n=1-objects), as well as n=2-objects and n=3-objects. Accordingly, in the brighter areas there is a process of decay of positively charged electron-positron complexes accompanied by the emission of electromagnetic quanta by electrons, while in the black spots the reverse process occurs, the absorption of electromagnetic quanta by electrons. This represents an increase of the electron velocity in sunspots compared to the light areas. As a consequence, there is a directional movement of electrons between sunspots and the external light areas, which means the formation of strong magnetic fields. In this mechanism, the magnetic fields are consequences and not the causes of sunspots as in modern physics. Based on the periodicity of solar activity it can be assumed that the sunspots can appear as a result of gravitational effects from the large planets – Jupiter and Saturn.

Unlike stars, planets can be seen as complexes of atoms, and not dense nuclear packing of electrons and positrons typical for stars. Nevertheless, the hot cores of planets like Earth are likely to have a nuclear packing of electrons and positrons that is similar to that found in stars. Like stars, this core should produce energy as a result of radioactive decay. In this case we can assume that planets represent the died stars.

COMMENTS

The proposed theory is consistent with existing theories regarding the expansion of the universe after the Big Bang. However, in detail, it significantly differs from modern cosmological ideas. The energy of the stars is not the energy of thermonuclear reactions, and the insides of stars are not extremely hot, they are relatively cold. The chemical elements of the higher atomic numbers are created inside of planets or on the surface of stars, but not as a result of the fusion of hydrogen inside stars. The relic radiation is not cooled down radiation from the Big Bang, but represents objects of one-dimensional space formed at the initial stage of universe evolution.

THE SECOND UNIVERSE

As mentioned in the section “Magnetic field of electric current”, the directed n=0-objects(I) form magnetic field lines as enclosed space structures. In these structures, the n=0‑objects(I) move relative to each other regardless of the movement of undirected n=0‑objects(I) of the cycle. This means that when a magnetic field is generated by a current, i.e. by movement of n=0-objects(II)”−”,”+”, then vacuum particles, n=0‑objects(I), transit from the cycle motion to the directed movement in enclosed space structures of the magnetic field. These structures correspond to the contours introduced in the second chapter in the section “Definition of second type of Space/Universe”. They represent a new Universe – the space of contours having various geometrical forms. These contours are connected to each other or existing separately. The second Universe is separated from the first Universe of the cycling Space/Matter and is indefinitely growing.

The richest geometrical forms of second Universe are created by the living organisms since they have a variety of the spatial configurations of ions motions in complex electro-chemical processes. It is true for all forms of life, from a single cell to the complex organisms. The prominent examples of such processes are those in the humane brain.

The essence of Life can be formulated as a continuous creation of second Universe of the most complex geometrical forms.